Friday, 15 December 2017

واشنطن تقايض الرياض بالقدس

واشنطن تقايض الرياض بالقدس

ديسمبر 15, 2017

ناصر قنديل

– تستطيع أي نظرة متفحّصة لما يجري في ملفي فلسطين وسورية تبيّن الخيط الرفيع الرابط، وهو المصالح «الإسرائيلية»، ومضمون هذه المصالح واضح بتجميد أي حلّ سياسي في سورية مبنيّ على حقائق الميدان العسكري، يسهّل عودة الدولة السورية وتعافيها، منعاً لما يشكّله ذلك من مكاسب فورية لمحور المقاومة كقوى وحكومات تستعدّ لجعل فلسطين أولويّتها، وإسقاط القرار الأميركي حول القدس عنوانها المباشر، فبقاء الارتباك والتشوش في مستقبل سورية هدف «إسرائيلي» دائم، ويصير أكثر حيوية في زمن المواجهة المتفجّرة في فلسطين ومساعي محور المقاومة للتفرّغ لهذه المواجهة.

– يعرف الأميركيون أن دوام الحال من المحال، وأن تعقيد مسار جنيف لن يُقفل طرق البدائل الميدانية والسياسية، لذلك فهم يبيعون إنجاز التعقيد للسعودية، كطرف يرعى وفد التفاوض للمعارضة بسقوف لا تراعي المتغيّرات، فمنح واشنطن للتغطية للتعقيد السعودي مبني على مصلحة انتقالية، يجري خلالها البحث بمستقبل الوجود الأميركي في سورية قبل أي تسهيل للحل السياسي. وهو في الوقت نفسه مسعى لمبادلة الوجود الأميركي بضوابط تقييد لقوى المقاومة في سورية بما يحقّق بعض الاطمئنان لـ«إسرائيل ، لكن الرهان الأصلي يبقى على إطلاق مسارات تطغى على قرار القدس الذي أطلقه الأميركيون، ومساعدة الإسرائيليين على هضم نتائجه في الميدان.

– التفاهم الأميركي السعودي الإسرائيلي عميق، ولا يُحرِج الرياض القول علناً إنها على ثقة بأن واشنطن وسيط إيجابي ومقبول في عملية السلام، رغم قرار القدس، وأنّ لديها خطة للسلام يجري إنضاجها بالتنسيق مع السعودية، كما قال وزير خارجيتها عادل الجبير، الذي غاب عن مؤتمر القمة الإسلامية في اسطنبول هو وملكه وولي عهده، ليمثلهم وزير الثقافة، باعتبار قرار اعتماد القدس عاصمة لـ«إسرائيل قراراً ثقافياً، يتصل بالتراث لا بالسياسة والسيادة، وكان الجبير في باريس لرشوة فرنسا بتمويل مشروعها السياسي في الساحل الأفريقي مقابل تقبّل عدم صلاحيتها كوسيط للعملية التفاوضية تتطلع إليه قمة اسطنبول، بقوله الصريح ومن باريس أثناء انعقاد القمة، إن اوروبا يمكنها أن تساعد، لكنها لا تستطيع الحلول مكان واشنطن التي تبقى وحدها المؤهلة لإدارة العملية التفاوضية، وفقاً لقول الجبير.

– المسار الذي تُعِدّه واشنطن وتستعدّ الرياض وتل أبيب للتعاون تحت ظلاله، كشفت النقاب عنه ممثلة واشنطن في الأمم المتحدة، نيكي هايلي، بقولها إن الأولوية الأميركية هي تشكيل حلف دولي للراغبين بمواجهة إيران، وسارعت كل من السعودية وإسرائيل للإعلان عن جهوزيتهما للانضمام لهذا الحلف ورهان الثلاثي الأميركي السعودي الإسرائيلي هو نجاح مزدوج، الأول بجعل العداء لإيران يتقدّم على العداء لـ«إسرائيل ومصير القدس، فيرى الشارع العربي أن إسرائيل التي تهوّد القدس وأميركا التي تبيعها شركاء وحلفاء، لأنّهم يرفعون لواء العداء لإيران، والنجاح الثاني هو في تمكّن الثلاثي الأميركي السعودي الإسرائيلي من احتواء الانتفاضة الفلسطينية بالجمع بين القوة الإسرائيلية والمال السعودي والتلاعب السياسي الاستخباري المشترك بأوراق القيادات الفلسطينية، والسعودية أمام إغراء تغطية مواصلة عدوانها على اليمن مقابل تغطية تهويد القدس جاهزة للمقايضة.

– قوى محور المقاومة تقرأ وتدرك ما يجري من حولها، وتضع الخطط مقابل الخطط، ولذلك عطّلت القنبلة المفخّخة في جنيف بفضح اللعبة. وهذه المهمة تولاها رئيس الوفد السوري المفاوض السفير بشار الجعفري، بينما الساحة الفصل التي ستقول كلمتها هي فلسطين، حيث سيثبت أن إسرائيل لا تزال هي العدو، والقدس هي العنوان، وأن ساحات المواجهة لن تهدأ، والمسارات المفتعلة ستُحرق أيدي أصحابها، والقطار السوري سيمضي من دون أن ينتظر طويلاً نضج الآخرين للركوب في المقصورة المخصّصة لهم، والوجود الأميركي في سورية ليس تحت حماية إلهية، طالما أن الحرب على الإرهاب قد انتهت مهمته المزعومة فيها، وصار احتلالاً مكشوفاً، وطالما أن الصواريخ اليمنية قد اختبرت قدرتها على إنشاء توازن رعب وردع في مواجهة الوحشية السعودية في الحرب على المدن اليمنية.

RelatedVideos
Related Articles
River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian   
The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Blog!

قمة السلاجقة والأعراب لن تبيعوا القدس مرّتين انتظروا المنازلة الكبرى في فلسطين


محمد صادق الحسيني

ديسمبر 14, 2017

انتباه انتباه انتباه

يُجمع العارفون بخفايا الأمور بأن ما حصل في اسطنبول يوم أمس، في ما سُمّي بقمة التعاون الاسلامي إنما هو في الواقع تآمر وتواطؤ سلجوقي سعودي مصري على الفلسطينيين ومبايعة مبطّنة لترامب، وكل ما عدا ذلك تضليل، قولوها صراحة ولا تضحكوا على الناس…!

المنافقون في قمة السلاجقة عندما يقولون بالقدس الشرقية عاصمة لفلسطين دون ذكر حدود 4 حزيران 67 يعني تخلياً عن كامل المقدّسات الإسلامية والمسيحية…!

قمة السلاجقة في اسطنبول خطيرة جداً.

وهي اعتراف بـ أبو ديس عاصمة لفلسطينهم. هذا ما اتفق عليه السيسي وسلمان وأبو مازن بأمر عمليات أميركي مبكر صادق عليه صائب عريقات ومدير المخابرات الفلسطينية قبل نحو ثلاثة أسابيع في أميركا…!

وإليكم تبعات وتداعيات هذه القمة التي يرى فيها البعض أشبه بنكبة ١٩٦٧ جديدة:

أولاً: لقد حققت القمة السلجوقية، التي عقدت أمس 13/12/2017 في اسطنبول، لـ«إسرائيل» أكثر بكثير مما حققه ترامب لها عندما اعترف بالقدس عاصمة لـ«إسرائيل». إذ إن هذه القمة قد سجلت اعتراف 57 دولة إسلامية بالقدس الغربية عاصمة لـ«إسرائيل» من دون أن تحدّد حدود القدس الغربية…!

ثانياً: فيما لم يعترف قرار الأمم المتحدة القاضي بتقسيم فلسطين والصادر في 29/12/1947 بالقدس عاصمة لـ«إسرائيل» وإنما أخضعها لنظام التدويل، أي أن تصبح مدينة دولية مفتوحة للجميع وخاضعة لإدارة دولية.

ثالثاً: وبما أن مفهوم «إسرائيل» للقدس الشرقية يقضي باقتصارها على ضاحية أبو ديس، الواقعة خارج سُور الفصل العنصري «الإسرائيلي» وخارج البلدة القديمة في القدس، فإن الاعتراف بالقدس الشرقية عاصمة لفلسطين ومن دون ذكر لحدود عام 1967 فهذا يشكل تماهياً مع المفهوم «الإسرائيلي» الأميركي للقدس…!

وبالتالي موافقة عملية على مفهوم القدس في صفقة ترامب التي يطلق عليها صفقة القرن…!

رابعاً: وهذا يعني تنازل القمة السلجوقية عن القدس الشرقية الأصلية أيضاً، أي البلدة القديمة، وما فيها من مقدسات مسيحية وإسلامية، لـ«إسرائيل»…!

إضافة الى القدس الغربية التي احتلت عام 1948، وهي بالأساس جزء من مدينة القدس العربية الفلسطينية التي كان يفترض أن تصبح خاضعة لإدارة دولية، حسب القرار الدولي 181 القاضي بتقسيم فلسطين.

خامساً: إن كل ما عدا ذلك من كلام أُطلق في هذه القمة لا قيمة له على الإطلاق ولا يتعدّى كونه أرضية لمزيد من الضياع الفلسطيني في غياهب المنظمات الدولية وغيرها لهاثاً وراء عضوية هنا وهناك.

علماً أن الدول التي شاركت في القمة المذكورة هي أعضاء في جميع هذه المنظمات ولَم تقدّم عضويتها أي خطوة على طريق تحرير فلسطين. كما أن هذا الوقت الذي سيذهب هدراً في الركض وراء سراب المنظمات الدولية وقراراتها، التي لم تحترمها لا «إسرائيل» ولا الولايات المتحدة ولو مرة واحدة..!

إن هذا الوقت إنما هو وقت من ذهب بالنسبة لـ«إسرائيل» والتي ستستغله لتعزيز عملياتها المتواصلة في تهويد القدس وإفراغها من أهلها الفلسطينيين بمختلف الوسائل والسبل.

سادساً: أما هدير أردوغان وتصريحاته النارية حول عدوانية «إسرائيل» وعنصريتها، فما هي إلا ذَر للرماد في العيون وتغطية على تآمره مع «إسرائيل» والولايات المتحدة. إذ إن الموقف لا يتطلّب كل هذا الضجيج الفارغ وإنما التوجه إلى العمل الجدي المنظم وعلى الطريقة الإيرانية المتمثلة في تقديم الدعم المباشر، العسكري والمالي واللوجستي لكل فصائل المقاومة التي تقاتل الكيان الصهيوني، لو كان صادقاً..!

وهذا ما لن يقوم به أردوغان، فمنذ انطلاقة الثورة الفلسطينية المعاصرة وحتى الْيَوْمَ لم يسجل التاريخ تقديم سلاجقة تركيا، ومنذ عام 1965 وحتى الْيَوْمَ بندقية واحدة للثورة الفلسطينية، سواء من قبل أردوغان أو من أسلافه من سلاحقة تركيا العلمانيين والإسلاميين، في الوقت الذي سارع الى إقامة قواعد عسكرية تركية في قطر التي لا تواجه أي تهديد خدمة للتحشيد الاستراتيجي ضد إيران وروسيا والصين…!

فأين هي قوات أردوغان التي كان يُفترض فيها أن تهبّ لمساندة المقاومة الفلسطينية في غزة لمواجهة الاعتداءات الإسرائيلية المستمرة والتي كان آخرها عدوان عام 2014!؟

سابعاً: نقول هذا ونحن نستذكر المسؤولية العثمانية/التركية عن ضياع فلسطين، التي دخلها الجنرال اللنبي بتاريخ 11/12/1917 وقامت الادارة الاستعمارية البريطانية بتسليمها للعصابات الصهيونية في العام 1949. أي أن تركيا ملزمة وطبقاً لأحكام القانون الدولي بمساعدة الشعب الفلسطيني في إعادة الوضع في فلسطين الى ما كان عليه قبل احتلالها من قبل القوات البريطانية و«الإسرائيلية» لاحقاً.

وهذا يعني بالتحديد تقديم كل الدعم اللازم للمقاومة الفلسطينية لاسترجاع فلسطين كاملة والاعتراف بالقدس الموحدة عاصمة لها، وكما كانت عندما وقع قائد القوات التركية وثيقة استسلام قواته لقائد الجيوش البريطانية يوم 29/12/1917 وفِي القدس التي كانت عاصمة فلسطين، وليس في القدس الشرقية أو أبو ديس، حسب المفهوم الأميركي «الإسرائيلي».

ثامناً: إن ما صدر عن هذا الاجتماع البائس في اسطنبول الْيَوْمَ لا يرقى إلى الحد الأدنى من مطالب الشعب العربي الفلسطيني الذي لا يعوّل شيئاً على هذا السيرك الاستعراضي المنعدم الفائدة والمعنى.

إن ما يهم الشعب الفلسطيني ويرسم الطريق الصحيح لتحرير بلاده فلسطين وإعادة وتثبيت القدس عاصمة لها هو نداء الانتفاضة الأول الذي صدر من غزة، ونداؤها الثاني أي أمر العمليات التنفيذي الذي صدر في بيروت على لسان سماحة السيد حسن نصر الله يوم أول أمس، والذي بدأ تنفيذه عبر الاتصالات الهاتفية التي أجراها اللواء قاسم سليماني، قائد قوة القدس في الحرس الثوري الإيراني، مع قادة الميدان في قطاع غزة، وتلك التي أجريت مع قادة ميدانيين في الضفة الغربية والتي لم يُعلَن عنها، مما دفع قوات الاحتلال «الإسرائيلي» لتنفيذ حملة اعتقالات واسعة في الضفة الغريبة الليلة الماضية بهدف منع كوادر المقاومة بتنفيذ ما تمّ التوافق عليه في تلك الاتصالات…!

ورغم كلّ ذلك يظلّ الأمل كبيراً على الذين يوصلون الليل بالنهار، وهم يُعدّون للمنازلة الكبرى، التي ستكون أقرب ما يكون بعلامات الساعة أو يوم القيامة، واليد العليا لن تكون إلا لهم.

بعدنا طيّبين، قولوا الله…

River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian   
The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Blog!

Records of Jerusalem Deeds Found in Ottoman Archives: The Deeds Prove that Palestine Belongs to Palestinians.


 
Featured image: Sultan Abdul Hamid II (Source: Pinterest)
There are 171,306 deeds recorded in 46 registries of Jerusalem in Ottoman archive records. Of these, 133,365 are private property and 37,671 belong to foundations. In addition to this, Turkey’s archives also have records of Jerusalem between the hijri years 950 and 1917.
Among the records of private property were 139 deeds belonging to Sultan Abdul Hamid II,137 of which were transferred to the treasury in the past. The remaining two are in Jerusalem’s Erihav region. The records show that there is a plot of land approximately 30,000 square meters in size that is recorded under the name of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.
Source: Truthaholics
The deeds proving that Palestine belongs to Palestinians were handed to Palestinian officials. Israel did not ask for deed records from Turkey. Had Israel requested these records, it would mean that Israel would be accepting that it is occupying Palestine.
A memorandum was signed between Palestine and Jordan. Procedures such as the maintenance and repair of foundations in Jerusalem were transferred to Jordan. Therefore, in 2016, upon the request of Jordan, Turkey provided copies of the deeds of foundations in Jerusalem to Jordan.
River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian   
The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Blog!

Taking Thirty pieces of silver, advocating for israel pays well: Salaries of nonprofit heads

Advocating for Israel pays well: Salaries of nonprofit heads

If Americans Knew | December 12, 2017
Rabbi Marvin Hier (center) and his wife Marlene with actor Dustin Hoffman at the premiere of “Against the Tide” on February 4, 2009 in Los Angeles. The Hiers and their son receive total annual compensation of $1.4 million.
If Americans Knew | December 12, 2017
Heads of nonprofits that support Israel receive compensation in the hundreds of thousands of dollars up to, in a few cases, over a million dollars.
Politicians reaping money from the Israel lobby (e.g. Tom Cotton received close to a million dollars from the Emergency Committee for Israel; Haim Saban and his wife donated $11.5 million to pro-Clinton super PACs, along with large sums to the Clinton Foundation) are not the only ones to benefit from supporting Israel.
Executive directors of nonprofits that support Israel receive compensation in the hundreds of thousands of dollars up to almost $2 million.
The Forward recently compiled a list of their earnings. It reportedthat Marvin Hier of the Simon Wiesenthal Center received $818,148 and that his spouse and his son also work for the center, giving them an annual total $1.4 million.
According to the Forward the Hiers were not alone in surpassing a million dollars compensation – in 2016, the CEO of the Jewish Community Federation of Cleveland received compensation of $1.3 million, and in 2014 the CEO of Boston’s Jewish federation received almost $2 million.
Below are some members of the Forward’s list for 2016
(All the individuals below head up organizations that spend part or all of their time in activities supportive of Israel):
Simon Wiesenthal Center
$818,148
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
$735,1811
American Israel Public Affairs Committee
$720,194
The Associated: Jewish Community Federation of Baltimore
$664,489
Jewish Federations of North America
$636,559
Combined Jewish Philanthropies of Greater Boston
$634,572
Republican Jewish Coalition
$632,950
Birthright Israel Foundation
$609,0561
Jewish United Fund/Jewish Federation of Metro Chicago
$564,955
Jewish Community Federation of Cleveland
$546,515
Anti-Defamation League
$545,441
American Jewish Committee
$539,016
UJA Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of New York
$530,000
Jewish Federation Council of Greater Los Angeles
$525,594
Greater Miami Jewish Federation
$519,436
Jewish Federation of South Palm Beach County
$507,430
Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life
$495,307
Jewish Federation of Greater Washington
$487,4501
Foundation for Jewish Camp
$460,501
The Israel Project
$460,160
Conference of Presidents Of Major Jewish Organizations
$452,693
Jewish Community Federation of San Francisco
$449,7502
Zionist Organization of America
$448,063
Jewish Community Centers Association of North America
$445,0002
Jewish National Fund
$435,011
Jewish Federation of Greater Philadelphia
$432,199
Hadassah
$409,818
B’nai Brith International
$405,708
United Jewish Federation of Pittsburgh
$351,7981
United Jewish Communities of MetroWest New Jersey
$352,236
American Jewish World Service
$330,000
Center for Jewish History
$325,0002
Jewish Federation of Metropolitan Detroit
$323,065
Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs
$315,0003
CLAL (National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership)
$309,7343
Jewish Federation of Greater Atlanta
$308,5781
CLAL (National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership)
$289,9843
J Street
$259,203
Stand With Us
$246,127
ORT America
$235,0001
Bend The Arc
$233,579
Americans for Peace Now
$228,866
Agudath Israel of America
$220,058
Jewish Council for Public Affairs
$205,160
Hazon
$202,811
Keshet
$153,462
Israeli-American Council
$135,6723
For full list go to The Forward.
River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian   
The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Blog!

Kitos War: Barbaric jewish history from the 1st and 2nd centuries


The Kitos War (115–117; Hebrewמרד הגלויות‎: mered ha’galuyot or mered ha’tfutzot[מרד התפוצות]; translation: rebellion of the diaspora. LatinTumultus Iudaicus) occurred during the period of the Jewish–Roman wars, 66–136. While the majority of the Roman armies were fighting Trajan’s Parthian War on the eastern border of the Roman Empiremajor uprisings by ethnic Judeans in CyrenaicaCyprus and Egypt spiraled out of control, resulting in a widespread slaughter of left behind Roman garrisons and Roman citizens by Jewish rebels. Some of the areas with the heaviest massacres were left so utterly annihilated that others were made to settle these areas to prevent the absence of any remaining presence. The rebellions were finally crushed by Roman legionary forces, chiefly by the Roman general Lusius Quietus, whose nomen later gave the conflict its title, as “Kitos” is a later corruption of Quietus

Background[edit]

Tension between the Jewish population of the Roman Empire and the Greek and Roman populations mounted over the course of the 1st century CE, gradually escalating with various violent events, mainly throughout Judea (Iudaea), where parts of the Judean population occasionally erupted into violent insurrections against the Roman Empire. Several incidents also occurred in other parts of the Roman Empire, most notable the Alexandria pogroms, targeting the large Jewish community of Alexandria in the province of Egypt.
The escalation of tensions finally erupted as the Great Revolt of Judea, which began in the year 66 CE. It erupted initially due to Greek and Jewish religious tensions, but later escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens.[1] The Roman military garrison of Judea was quickly overrun by rebels and the pro-Roman king Herod Agrippa II fled Jerusalem, together with Roman officials to GalileeCestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought the Syrian army, based on XII Fulminata, reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt. The legion, however, was ambushed and defeated by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon, a result that shocked the Roman leadership.
The Roman command of the revolt’s suppression was then handed to general Vespasian and his son Titus, who assembled four legions and began advancing through the country, starting with Galilee, in the year 67 CE. The revolt ended when legionsunder Titus besieged and destroyed the center of rebel resistance in Jerusalem in the year 70 CE, and defeated the remaining Jewish strongholds later on.

Revolt and warfare[edit]

In 115, the emperor Trajan was in command of the eastern campaign against the Parthian Empire. The Roman invasion had been prompted by the imposition of a pro-Parthian king on the throne of Armenia after a Parthian invasion of that land. This encroachment on the traditional sphere of influence of the Roman Empire — the two empires had shared hegemony over Armenia since the time of Nero some 50 years earlier — could only lead to war.
As Trajan’s army advanced victoriously through Mesopotamia, Jewish rebels in its rear began attacking the small garrisons left behind. A revolt in far off Cyrenaica soon spread to Egypt and then Cyprus, inciting revolt in Judea. A widespread uprising centered at Lydda threatened grain supplies from Egypt to the front. The Jewish insurrection swiftly spread to the recently conquered provinces. Cities with substantial Jewish populations – NisibisEdessaSeleuciaArbela – joined the rebellion and slaughtered their small Roman garrisons.

Cyrenaica[edit]

In Cyrenaica, the rebels were led by one Lukuas or Andreas, who called himself “king” (according to Eusebius of Caesarea). His group destroyed many temples, including those to HecateJupiterApolloArtemis, and Isis, as well as the civil structures that were symbols of Rome, including the Caesareum, the basilica, and the public baths.
The 4th century Christian historian Orosius records that the violence so depopulated the province of Cyrenaica that new colonies had to be established by Hadrian:
“The Jews … waged war on the inhabitants throughout Libya in the most savage fashion, and to such an extent was the country wasted that, its cultivators having been slain, its land would have remained utterly depopulated, had not the Emperor Hadrian gathered settlers from other places and sent them thither, for the inhabitants had been wiped out.”[2]
Dio Cassius states of Jewish insurrectionaries:
“‘Meanwhile the Jews in the region of Cyrene had put one Andreas at their head and were destroying both the Romans and the Greeks. They would cook their flesh, make belts for themselves of their entrails, anoint themselves with their blood, and wear their skins for clothing. Many they sawed in two, from the head downwards. Others they would give to wild beasts and force still others to fight as gladiators. In all, consequently, two hundred and twenty thousand perished. In Egypt, also, they performed many similar deeds, and in Cyprus under the leadership of Artemio. There, likewise, two hundred and forty thousand perished. For this reason no Jew may set foot in that land, but even if one of them is driven upon the island by force of the wind, he is put to death. Various persons took part in subduing these Jews, one being Lusius, who was sent by Trajan.”[3]
The original 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia cited this about the Cyrene massacres:
“By this outbreak Libya was depopulated to such an extent that a few years later new colonies had to be established there (Eusebius, “Chronicle” from the Armenian, fourteenth year of Hadrian). Bishop Synesius, a native of Cyrene in the beginning of the fifth century, speaks of the devastations wrought by the Jews (“Do Regno,” p. 2).”[4]
The Jewish Encyclopedia acknowledges Dio Cassius’s importance as a source, though believes his accounts of the actions at Cyrene and on Cyprus may have been embellished:
“For an account of the Jewish war under Trajan and Hadrian Dion is the most important source (lxviii. 32, lxix. 12–14), though his descriptions of the cruelties perpetrated by the Jews at Cyrene and on the island of Cyprus are probably exaggerated.”[5]

Egypt[edit]

Then Lukuas, leader of rebel Jews, moved towards Alexandria, entered the city, which had been abandoned by the Roman troops in Egypt under the leadership of governor Marcus Rutilius Lupus, and set fire to the city. The Egyptian temples and the tomb of Pompey were destroyed. Jewish rebels reportedly also prevailed in a battle at Hermopolis in 116, as indicated in a papyrus.[6]
Trajan sent new troops under the praefectus praetorio Marcius Turbo, but Egypt and Cyrenaica were pacified only in autumn 117.

Cyprus[edit]

In Cyprus a Jewish band under a leader named Artemion took control of the island, killing tens of thousands of Cypriot Greek civilians. The Cypriot Jews participated in the great uprising against the Romans under Trajan (117), and massacred 240,000 Greeks.[3][7] A Roman army was dispatched to the island, soon reconquering the capital. After the revolt had been fully defeated, laws were created forbidding any Jews to live on the island.

Mesopotamia[edit]

A new revolt sprang up in Mesopotamia, while Trajan was in the Persian Gulf. Trajan reconquered Nisibis (Nusaybin in Turkey), the capital of Osroene Edessa, and Seleucia(Iraq), each of which housed large Jewish communities.
A pro-Roman son of the Parthian king Osroes I, named Parthamaspatas, had been brought on the expedition as part of the emperor’s entourage. Trajan had him crowned in Ctesiphon as king of the Parthians. “Trajan, fearing that the Parthians, too, might begin a revolt, desired to give them a king of their own. Accordingly, when he came to Ctesiphon, he called together in a great plain all the Romans and likewise all the Parthians that were there at the time; then he mounted a lofty platform, and after describing in grandiloquent language what he had accomplished, he appointed Parthamaspates king over the Parthians and set the diadem upon his head.” (Dio Cassius). With this done, Trajan moved north to take personal command of the ongoing siege of Hatra.
The siege continued throughout the summer of 117, but the years of constant campaigning in the baking eastern heat had taken their toll on Trajan, who suffered a heatstroke. He decided to begin the long journey back to Rome in order to recover. Sailing from Seleucia, the emperor’s health deteriorated rapidly. He was taken ashore at Selinus in Cilicia, where he died, and his successor, Hadrian, assumed the reins of government in 118.

Judea[edit]

Jewish leader Lukuas fled to Judea.[8] Marcius Turbo pursued him and sentenced to death the brothers Julian and Pappus, who had been key leaders in the rebellion. Lusius Quietus, the conqueror of the Jews of Mesopotamia, was now in command of the Roman army in Judea, and laid siege to Lydda, where the rebel Jews had gathered under the leadership of Julian and Pappus. The distress became so great that the patriarch Rabban Gamaliel II, who was shut up there and died soon afterwards, permitted fasting even on Ḥanukkah. Other rabbis condemned this measure.[9] Lydda was next taken and many of the rebellious Jews were executed; the “slain of Lydda” are often mentioned in words of reverential praise in the Talmud.[10] Rebel leaders Pappus and Julian were among those executed by the Romans in the same year.[11]
Lusius Quietus, whom the Emperor Trajan had held in high regard and who had served Rome so well, was quietly stripped of his command once Hadrian had secured the Imperial title. He was murdered in unknown circumstances in the summer of 118, possibly by the orders of Hadrian.
Hadrian took the unpopular, but far-sighted, decision to end the war, abandoning much of Trajan’s eastern conquests and stabilising the eastern borders. Although he abandoned the erstwhile province of Mesopotamia, he installed Parthamaspates – who had been ejected from Ctesiphon by the returning Osroes – as king of a restored Osroene. For a century Osroene would retain a precarious independence as a buffer state, sandwiched between the two empires.
The situation in Judea remained tense for the Romans, who were obliged under Hadrian to permanently move the Legio VI Ferrata into Caesarea Maritima in Judea.

Aftermath[edit]

Further developments occurred in Judea Province in the year 130, when Emperor Hadrian visited the Eastern Mediterranean and, according to Cassius Dio, made the decision to rebuild the city of Jerusalem as the Roman city of Aelia Capitolina, derived from his own name. The decision, together with Hadrian’s other sanctions against the Jews, was allegedly one of the reasons for the eruption of the 132 Bar Kokhba revolt — an extremely violent uprising. The rebellion ended with a ban upon the Jewish faith across the Roman Empire, which was lifted in 138, upon Hadrian’s death.

River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian   
The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Blog!

Why Assad Believes That Syria Would Not Survive a Transition to a Federal System


Why Assad Believes That Syria Would Not Survive a Transition to a Federal System
DMITRY MININ | 11.12.2017 | WORLD / MIDDLE EAST

Why Assad Believes That Syria Would Not Survive a Transition to a Federal System

The idea that the protracted civil war in Syria might be resolved by restructuring the country into a federation has been on a lot of minds lately. At first glance, it does seem tempting to try to reconcile the warring sectors of the population and all the various factions by granting broad rights of autonomy based on ethnicity and religion.
The draft of the new constitution that was originally pitched to the Syrians by the international community was in fact premised on the idea of granting such status to the “nationalities living in the country.” That manifested itself, for example, in the proposal to establish a bicameral parliament in Syria. Only relatively recently did the Syrian Congress on National Dialogue (soon to convene) begin going by that name. Previous attempts were seen to call it the Congress of Syrian Peoples. But President Assad was firmly against that version from the very beginning. He feels that because of the nature of the local environment in the Middle East, the states there that fly the flag of federalism are inevitably forced to watch their territorial integrity and sovereignty slipping away. It seems to the president of Syria that, by touting federalization, the West is resorting to political and subversive means to achieve the goals it has been unable to attain militarily. For example, without waiting for a final resolution of the matter, the Americans have already urged the Kurds, whose cause they so champion, to unilaterally proclaim the establishment of the Federation of Northern Syria in the territories they occupy. And that’s only the beginning.
History has shown that no federation has been viable in that area and that eventual collapse is inevitable. The Syrians themselves must see a lesson in the story of their own short-lived federation with Egypt, known as the United Arab Republic.
Nor did Libya’s repeated attempts to create a federation with some of its neighbors meet with any success. The efforts to merge Ethiopia and Sudan into a federation – initially backed by the West – ultimately ended once Eritrea and South Sudan won their independence and pulled out. Baghdad’s willingness to grant Iraqi Kurdistan an even higher status than that of merely a constituent region of a federation resulted in Kurdish attempts to secede from Iraq. It took a massive military intervention to put a stop to that. And should Syria take that path, there is even less hope that it might escape such a fate.
The projects to federalize states in that region are tied to the initiatives to completely redraw the borders of those territories. The campaign to alter national boundaries in the “Greater Middle East” really picked up steam with the arrival of the Arab Spring in 2011. The new map of the Middle East that was proposed in the journal Foreign Affairs in 1992 by Bernard Lewis, a professor of Near Eastern Studies and advisor to George W. Bush, has regained its popularity. In 2006, this map was updated by the retired military-intelligence officer Ralph Peters in Armed Forces Journal.
The Lewis-Peters map
The intention of these exercises in “applied cartography” is to strengthen American positions in the region by weakening those national states. To this end, a “Balkanization” of the Middle East was planned along the fault lines of religious, ethnic, and clan divisions. And stirring up the animosities between the Shiites and Sunnis was to play a key role.
Syria at that time was not seriously viewed as a target for those efforts, as it seemed like a rock of stability amidst its restive neighbors. It took almost two years for the “ripple effect” from the Arab Spring to reach Syria. Once the Syrian conflict began, a map surfaced in the media (which let’s call “the Israeli version”) showing the potential breakup of that country once it became a federation.
It featured a powerful Druze sector that was to be carved out on the Syrian-Israeli border. Once Syria’s boundaries were redrawn this way, its Druze population – due to fears of Sunni fundamentalism – would be favorably positioned for an alliance with Tel Aviv, which would offer a permanent solution to the problem of the Golan Heights and give Israel a buffer zone that would greatly shore up its security in the north. In addition, the residents of that entire territory might want to “reunite with their compatriots” inside of Israel.
However, the war didn’t go that way. The Druze proved completely loyal to Damascus and distinguished themselves with their heroic exploits to defend Syria’s territorial integrity. Nevertheless, the flavor of Israel’s military operations near that border shows that it has not entirely abandoned those notions. Tel Aviv might try again under favorable circumstances. And one circumstance that might fit that bill would be the federalization of Syria under international control.
A “Kurdish version” of Syria’s future national and state configuration was also widely circulated.
It is not difficult to see that at that time the Kurds had not yet even started to dream of the many territories they have now seized with the Americans’ help. The biggest challenge for them was unifying all the Kurdish cantons in the north into a single zone. As a result, despite gaining control over a quarter of Syrian territory – as far west as the Euphrates – the Kurds have by no means resolved the question of their nationhood. The Kurdish-occupied Arab settlements haven’t demonstrated any particular loyalty to Rojava. And the more economically-developed Afrin canton remains cut off from the greater part of the Kurdish stronghold. Outside of Rojava there are still about 250,000 Kurds living in the city of Aleppo (primarily in the Sheikh Maqsood district), a group that includes the most prominent cultural figures and businessmen of Kurdish ethnicity in Syria. Thus the Syrian Kurds’ appetites for new territory have not yet been sated.
If you look at the map of Syria’s ethno-sectarian makeup, it becomes clear that any attempts to demarcate certain federal or administrative zones along ethnic lines can only lead to fierce new clashes in this “war of all against all.”
The main problem is that the various ethnic and sectarian factions are all sprinkled throughout Syria. It is extremely difficult to clearly demarcate their boundaries. The claims of some will collide with the ambitions of others, forming permanent flash points where they converge. Who should own the uninhabited and oil-rich Syrian desert, which makes up half the country’s territory, is a completely open question. This is in fact a much uglier and more complicated version of the civil war in the former Yugoslavia. However, this is not the only problem.
Any hypothetical plan to impose a federal system on the country elicits the question: what are the criteria for identifying “the nationalities of Syria” and their right to independence? Given the plethora of sects and movements that exist in Syria, this would be an overwhelming task. For example, the West and the countries of the Persian Gulf have long dreamed of driving the Alawites, the Assad family’s tribe, into the “ghetto” of the province of Latakia. But are they not Arabs and Muslims, like their Sunni brothers? Using that approach, the country could be splintered into dozens of micro-states. Among the Sunnis in particular, one might point to the strong collective identity of the Bedouins as a reason to hand all of the desert over to them, and so on. And that might please some, but not Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
He has renounced ethno-sectarian discord and proposed a completely modern version of a civil Syrian nation that would respect the distinctive traits that distinguish the cultures and civilizations of all the groups living in the country. Assad believes that the problems of Syria’s national and state configuration can be resolved with the help of the ideology of pan-Arabism.
Speaking recently at a forum in Damascus attended by representatives from Arab countries, the Syrian president proclaimed that pan-Arabism is a conceptual notion of a civilization that includes “all ethnic groups, religions, and communities” and allows them to develop. And the cultural heritages of all of them have made an invaluable contribution to the historical development of pan-Arabism. According to Assad, an attempt was made during the war to impose a false choice on Syria: to either abandon its own identity and kowtow to foreign powers or to become a society of “communities in conflict.”
Paradoxically, the bulk of the opposition groups that take their cues from Riyadh fully agree with the Syrian president’s approach per se. They are also opposed to a federal system being foisted upon the country and make their arguments from a position of pan-Arabism. But Assad views this principle in a more secular light. It should be noted that under pressure from the opposition, the international mediators led by Staffan de Mistura have already altered their version of the future Syrian constitution, no longer referring to the country as the Syrian Republic, but as the Syrian Arab Republic, which still remains the state’s official name. The tensions between the opposition and Damascus have just about been reduced to one thorny issue – the continued hold of Bashar al-Assad and his entourage on the reins of power in that country. But if the pressure to federalize Syria keeps growing, then – who knows? – perhaps it might even motivate the opposition and the government to find a mutually acceptable solution to this issue as well.
River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian   
The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Blog!